Pre-French & Indian Wars
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The Indians, French,  English & the Americans
The history of the Ohio area was determined by the conflict over who controlled it. The Indians, the French, the English and the Colonists all wanted control. The final control and the future of the area was determined by the French & Indian War.
 
Before the American French & Indian War - The French & the British at War

The French and Indian War (16891763) was the American name given to an international conflict that included North America. It was fought between the French and their Allies VS the British, the colonists and their Allies. The struggle was referred to as the first world war since many of the countries of the world were on one side or another. The conflict extended far beyond the America's to Europe and India. It was a battle to determine empires and world influence. 
E
uropeans viewed the American conflict as fairly insignificant. That was not the case in North America.  The colonists had very immediate concerns in North America. The fighting in America meant not only raids by the French or the British but also the horrors of Indian warfare. The conflict was looked on as a single war without interruption even though the European wars were on again and off again until 1763. Also at stake here was the future of Canada, the American West and the West Indies.
I
n Europe the conflict raged on during a series of wars between the French and English. The first official war was called The War of the Grand Alliance, (168897), called in the Colonies King William's War. France was on one side and England, Spain, and the Netherlands the other. This war ended with the Treaty of Ryswick, 1697. In the colonies it was marked by continuing French attacks on the British/Colonist frontier settlements. Sir William Phips took Port Royal (now Annapolis Royal, N.S.) in 1690 only to lose it back to the French the next year. The British tried to take Quebec by land unsuccessfully. The French Commander at Quebec, the comte de Frontenac, attacked the eastern coast settlements. The treaty gave the colonies little relief since France still occupied the Ohio Territory and Canada and it was short lived. The next war was named Queen Anne's War (170213). The colonists saw many bloody frontier battles against the French & their Indian Allies. A British naval attack on Quebec failed. The French attacked Deerfield, Mass. Port Royal, NS, fell to the British under Francis Nicholson (1710) as did Acadia. At the Peace of Utrecht, Hudson Bay territory, Acadia, St. Kitts, and Newfoundland were given to England. France also lost its fortifications of Dunkirk. The next war came America a few years later in 1744. The Colonists called it King George's War. The Europeans called it War of Jenkins's Ear and the War of the Austrian Succession. The French tried to take back Port Royal unsuccessfully. An army under William Pepperrell out of Massachusetts with a British fleet under Sir Peter Warren took Louisburg, E Cape Breton Island, N.S. This war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. It gave Louisburg back to the French. Bloody battles occurred across the frontier and continued. The French and British wars concluded with the Seven Years War (175663). The players in this one were France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and (after 1762) Spain on the one side and Prussia, Great Britain, and Hanover on the other.
O
ne direct effect of this war was the colonists had to learn to count on themselves.  The Atlantic Ocean hindered England's assistance and protection of the colonies. And Britain eventually had to devote resources to battling the French and their allies in Europe and India.  Toss in when peace came in 1763, Britain started imposed large taxes on goods shipped to the colonies to pay for the war. The colonists began to think of themselves more and more as independent from the Crown and mother country. They began to view themselves as Americans.

 

There is more to this story. This just sets the stage of the French & Indian Wars, click here to read more.

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  1.  The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright 2006, Columbia University Press.
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